Saturday, February 21, 2009

Cost of Solar Photovoltaic System drops


A new study on the installed costs of solar photovoltaic (PV) power systems in the U.S. shows that the average cost of these systems declined significantly from 1998 to 2007, but remained relatively flat during the last two years of this period.

Researchers at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) who conducted the study say that the overall decline in the installed cost of solar PV systems is mostly the result of decreases in nonmodule costs, such as the cost of labor, marketing, overhead, inverters, and the balance of systems.

“This suggests that state and local PV deployment programs — which likely have a greater impact on nonmodule costs than on module prices — have been at least somewhat successful in spurring cost reductions,” states the report, which was written by Ryan Wiser, Galen Barbose, and Carla Peterman of Berkeley Lab’s Environmental Energy Technologies Division.

Installations of solar PV systems have grown at a rapid rate in the U.S., and governments have offered various incentives to expand the solar market.

“A goal of government incentive programs is to help drive the cost of PV systems lower. One purpose of this study is to provide reliable information about the costs of installed systems over time,” says Wiser.

The study examined 37,000 grid-connected PV systems installed between 1998 and 2007 in 12 states. It found that average installed costs, in terms of real 2007 dollars per installed watt, declined from $10.50 per watt in 1998 to $7.60 per watt in 2007, equivalent to an average annual reduction of 30 cents per watt or 3.5 percent per year in real dollars.

The researchers found that the reduction in nonmodule costs was responsible for most of the overall decline in costs. According to the report, this trend, along with a reduction in the number of higher-cost “outlier” installations, suggests that state and local PV-deployment policies have achieved some success in fostering competition within the industry and in spurring improvements in the cost structure and efficiency of the delivery infrastructure for solar power.
Costs differ by region and type of system

Other information about differences in costs by region and by installation type emerged from the study. The cost reduction over time was largest for smaller PV systems, such as those used to power individual households. Also, installed costs show significant economies of scale. Systems completed in 2006 or 2007 that were less than two kilowatts in size averaged $9.00 per watt, while systems larger than 750 kilowatts averaged $6.80 per watt.

Installed costs were also found to vary widely across states. Among systems completed in 2006 or 2007 and less than 10 kilowatts, average costs range from a low of $7.60 per watt in Arizona, followed by California and New Jersey, which had average installed costs of $8.10 per watt and $8.40 per watt respectively, to a high of $10.60 per watt in Maryland. Based on these data, and on installed-cost data from the sizable Japanese and German PV markets, the authors suggest that PV costs can be driven lower through sizable deployment programs.
The study also found that the new construction market offers cost advantages for residential PV systems. Among small residential PV systems in California completed in 2006 or 2007, those systems installed in residential new construction cost 60 cents per watt less than comparably-sized systems installed as retrofit applications.

Cash incentives declined

The study also found that direct cash incentives provided by state and local PV incentive programs declined over the 1998-2007 study period. Other sources of incentives, however, have become more significant, including federal incentive tax credits (ITCs). As a result of the increase in the federal ITC for commercial systems in 2006, total after-tax incentives for commercial PV were $3.90 per watt in 2007, an all-time high based on the data analyzed in the report. Total after-tax incentives for residential systems, on the other hand, averaged $3.1 per watt in 2007, their lowest level since 2001.

Because incentives for residential PV systems declined over this period, the net installed cost of residential PV has remained relatively flat since 2001. At the same time, the net installed cost of commercial PV has dropped — it was $3.90 per watt in 2007, compared to $5.90 per watt in 2001, a drop of 32 percent, thanks in large part to the federal ITC.


22 comments:

Anonymous said...

They fill the senses, with color, scent and emotion. Under normal circumstances, the plant will supply what
the flower needs; however, when severed, the flower becomes immediately deprived of these essential nutrients.
You are looking for a way to make the world a beautiful place
for your heart and soul to rest at peace.

Also visit my blog: florystyczna poczta Łódź

Anonymous said...

burberry outlet online, ray ban sunglasses, air max, tory burch outlet, true religion, polo ralph lauren outlet, oakley sunglasses, oakley sunglasses, true religion jeans, ray ban, burberry outlet online, coach purses, longchamp outlet, coach factory, michael kors outlet, gucci outlet, louboutin, coach outlet store, coach outlet, tiffany and co, polo ralph lauren, chanel handbags, oakley sunglasses, oakley sunglasses, kate spade outlet, toms shoes, nike free, michael kors outlet, prada handbags, nike shoes, nike air max, louis vuitton outlet online, louis vuitton handbags, jordan shoes, coach factory outlet, ray ban sunglasses, oakley sunglasses, louboutin

Anonymous said...

ray ban, new balance shoes, ugg boots, louis vuitton, ugg boots, bottega, montre homme, lancel, nfl jerseys, nike air max, asics gel, celine handbags, ralph lauren, mulberry, rolex watches, tn pas cher, louboutin, soccer shoes, jimmy choo, nike free, juicy couture outlet, ugg boots, nike air max, air max, gucci, converse shoes, ferragamo shoes, chi flat iron, yoga pants, nike free, hollister, oakley, valentino, ray ban, supra shoes, karen millen, beats by dre, vans, jerseys, longchamp, louis vuitton, insanity, reebok outlet, ralph lauren, ghd, mcm handbags, timberland, birkin bag, abercrombie and fitch, oakley,

veno ananda said...

alat bantu sex terbaru
vibrator wanita
alat bantu seksual wanita
alat bantu sexualitas pria
alat bantu sexualitas
jual alat bantu sex
vimax
obat pembesar penis
obat penyubur sperma
sex toys
alat bantu sex pria
alat bantu sex
boneka sex
alat sex
sex toys
alat bantu wanita
alat bantu seksual
alat bantu seks
alat bantu sex
alat bantu sex wanita
obat kuat pria
obat perkasa
obat kuat
obat kuat sex

veno ananda said...

pada sebuah kehidupan berumah tangga pasangan selalu membutuhkan alat bantu sex
untuk wanita yang maniak berhubngan intim tapi di tinggal pasangannya pakai aja alat bantu sex wanita minimal alat bantu sex pria
untuk menghindari seorang suami berselingkuh dalam perjalanan luar kota alangkah baiknya bawa bekal boneka sex | boneka full body atau alat bantu sex
dan alat bantu seks
dan bagi pria atau suami yang penisnya sudah loyo pakai aja penis ikat pinggang penyangga jual alat bantu sex
dan bagi wanita yang ingin berfantasi sex engan pasangannya alat bantu sexualitas wanita
jika anda mencari alat bantu wanita jangan ragu klik aja link ini alat bantu seks
kebanyakan orang dalam berhubungan intim mengunakan alat bantu seksual wanita atau alat seksual wanita
dan rata rata wanita yang doyan ngesex biasanya menggunakan alat sex wanita atau menggelitik anunya dengan sex toys
untuk pria yang ingin mememuas kan pasangannya tapi malu karena penisnya kecil alat pembesar penis

veno ananda said...

bagi pria yang males pakai alat oalah raga penis bisa menggunakan obat pembesar penis atau pembesar penis
yang bermerk neo size xl | vimax
dan kalau pria itu alat vitalnya sudah gede tapi spermanya kuran dan tidak subur bisa menggunakan obat penyubur sperma
jangan lupa saat berhubungan intim menggunakan kondom silikon polos | kondom bergerigi untuk menghindari penyakit gunakan juga kondom sambung silikon
bagi pria yang ingin memuaskan pasangannya gunakan obat tahan lama dan obat perkasa cocok di gunakan bagi pria yang ingin berhubungan intim
untuk pria yang sudah loyo disarankan menggunakan obat kuat atau obat sex biar stamina badan selau terjaga obat vitalitas pria
seorang wanita yang dilihat pertama dari pemutih wajah dan body badan obat pelangsing dibagian penumbuh rambut itu juga mendukung pemutih gigi apa lagi tinggi semapai obat peninggi badan
bagi seorang wanita yang ingin memaksimalkan penampilan pemerah bibir atau ingin menghilangkan penghilang bekas luka atau perontok bulu
penting juga untuk pria maupun wanita yang ingin obat penggemuk dan membersihkan pemutih selangkangan atau menghilangkan pengghilang selulit

Weiming Zhu said...

baltimore ravens jerseys
denver broncos jerseys
chicago bulls jersey
cleveland cavaliers jersey
golden state warriors jerseys
los angeles lakers jerseys
oklahoma city thunder jerseys
san antonio spurs jerseys
new york knicks jersey
miami heat jersey
boston celtics jersey
los angeles clippers jerseys
koby bryant shoes
lebron james shoes
chanel handbags
tory burch outlet
coach outlet
coach outlet canada
oakley sunglasses canada
michael kors uk
michael kors uk
michael kors uk
cheap soccer jerseys
cheap football shirts
futbol baratas
real madrid jersey
barcelona jersey
chelsea jersey
manchester united jersey
custom mlb jerseys
nike huarache
nike air max uk
nike free uk
nike trainers
ralph lauren uk
ugg uk
christian louboutin uk
swarovski uk
rolex watches uk
mulberry uk
nike roshe

Qing Cai said...

ferragamo shoes
los angeles clippers jerseys
ray ban sunglasses
denver broncos jerseys
hollister clothing
ray ban sunglasses
cheap jordans
nike running shoes
the north face outlet store
nike roshe run
michael kors outlet online
new balance 574
kate spade outlet
ray ban sunglasses uk
air jordan shoes
iphone 6 cases
burberry handbags
nike free uk
pandora jewelry
cheap ray ban sunglasses
cheap soccer jerseys
pittsburgh steelers jersey
salomon running shoes
polo lacoste pas cher
chicago bulls jersey
air jordan 13
toms outlet
coach outlet online
north face outlet
longchamp handbags
minnesota vikings jerseys
nike huarache
cai2015627

Zheng junxai5 said...

2015-07-24 zhengjx
michael kors handbags
ed hardy uk clothing
replica watches rolex
ray bans
longchamp le pliage
gucci borse
abercrombie and fitch
polo ralph lauren uk
michael kors outlet
kate spade bags
louis vuitton borse
louboutin
polo ralph lauren
oakley sunglasses wholesale
ralph lauren femme
burberry scarf
mcm backpack
oakley sunglasses
fitflops
ray bans
chanel bags
michael kors
louboutin
louboutin femme
cheap oakley sunglasses
jorda femme pas cher
soccer outlet
gucci sito ufficiale
michael kors
oakley sunglasses sale
michael kors handbags
coach outlet
longchamp outlet online
cheap snabacks
rolex watches for sale
michael kors watches
toms shoes sale
louis vuitton sito ufficiale
kate spade
hollister kids clothing

Qing Cai said...

pandora
swarovski crystal
fitflop shoes
lululemon
cheap uggs, http://www.uggboot.com.co
coach outlet store
ray ban
lacoste polo shirts
mizuno running
michael kors uk outlet
true religion outlet, http://www.truereligionjeansoutlet.com
cheap jordans
tods outlet
gucci
nike free 5.0
michael kors outlet, http://www.michaelkorsoutlet-store.us.com
foamposite gold
the north face outlet
baltimore ravens jerseys
louis vuitton handbags
ugg boots, http://www.uggbootsclearance.in.net
cheap soccer jerseys
abercrombie and fitch
san antonio spurs jerseys
lebron shoes
oakley sunglasses, http://www.oakleysunglassesdiscount.us.com
pandora jewelry
denver broncos jerseys
monster beats
fred perry sale
cai2015824

Wenhao Guo said...

nike air max, http://www.airmax2014.net/
cheap ugg boots, http://www.cheapuggboots.me.uk/
mulberry,mulberry handbags,mulberry outlet,mulberry bags,mulberry uk
boston celtics, http://www.celticsjersey.com/
prada handbags, http://www.pradahandbagsoutlet.co.uk/
asics, http://www.asicsisrael.com/
michael kors factory store,michael kors outlet online sale,michael kors,kors outlet,michael kors outlet,michael kors handbags,michael kors outlet online,michael kors handbags clearance,michael kors purses,michaelkors.com,michael kors bags,michael kors shoes,michaelkors,cheap michael kors
oakley, http://www.occhialioakleyoutlets.it/
air jordan 11 retro, http://www.airjordan11.net/
chelsea jersey, http://www.chelseajerseystore.com/
kobe 9 shoes, http://www.kobe9elite.us.com/
tory burch sandals, http://www.toryburchshoesoutlet.com/
designer handbags, http://www.designerhandbags.us.com/
moncler outlet, http://www.moncler.us.com/
wedding dresses, http://www.weddingdressesoutlet.co.uk/
ray ban sunglasses outlet,ray ban sunglasses,ray ban,rayban,ray bans,ray ban outlet,ray-ban,raybans,ray ban wayfarer,ray-ban sunglasses,raybans.com,rayban sunglasses,cheap ray ban
denver broncos, http://www.denverbroncos.org/
insanity,insanity workout,insanity workout calendar,insanity calendar,insanity workout schedule
ddddd0925

obat aborsi said...

cara menggugurkan kandungan banyak sekali jenisnya dari non medis ( alami ) dan medis.
Tapi cara apakah yang paling aman dan baik bagi wanita untuk minum obat aborsi

Wenhao Guo said...

michael kors handbags store
monster beats
coach outlet online
jordan shoes
nike free
barbour uk
cheap ray ban sunglasses
puma shoes
ugg boots
green bay packers
beats by dr dre
ferragamo shoes
michael kors handbags sale
ray ban sunglasses,ray ban sunglasses outlet,ray ban,rayban,ray bans,ray ban outlet,ray-ban,raybans,ray ban wayfarer,ray-ban sunglasses,raybans.com,rayban sunglasses,cheap ray ban
soccer jerseys,cheap soccer jerseys,cheap soccer jerseys for sale,soccer jersey,usa soccer jersey,football jerseys
chicago blackhawks
designer handbags
true religion jeans
cleveland cavaliers
lebron james shoes,lebron 12,lebron 12 shoes,lebron sneakers,lebron iv,lebron 11,lebron 10
louis vuitton outlet online
san antonio spurs
michael kors online outlet
soccer jerseys,soccer jerseys wholesale,soccer jerseys cheap,soccer jerseys for sale,cheap soccer jersey,usa soccer jersey,football jerseys
nike sneakers
tommy hilfiger outlet
rolex watches,swiss watch,replica watches,rolex watches for sale,replica watches uk,rolex watches replica,rolex watches for sales
louis vuitton outlet
ralph lauren,ralph lauren uk,ralph lauren outlet,ralph lauren outlet online,polo ralph lauren outlet,ralph lauren polo
mont blanc
coach outlet online,coach purses,coach handbags,coach bags,coach handbags sale,coach handbags outlet
ddd1103

cara menggugurkan kandungan said...

I visit everyday some sites and sites to read articles or reviews, but this weblog provides quality based articles.

Gege Dai said...

coach outlet clearance
bottega veneta outlet
rolex uk
air max uk
adidas wings
mulberry handbags sale
hermes birkin bag
cheap ray ban sunglasses
jordan shoes
nike roshe run shoes
kobe bryants shoes
moncler jackets
polo ralph lauren
longchamp pliage
ugg boots
michael kors canada
michael kors outlet
jordan shoes
ray ban sunglasses
herve leger outlet
polo ralph lauren
uggs outlet
adidas shoes
cheap uggs
ralph lauren outlet
louis vuitton outlet online
tory burch outlet online
lululemon outlet
louis vuitton outlet
ferragamo shoes
hollister clothing
true religion outlet
michael kors outlet
michael kors handbags
coach outlet
christian louboutin uk
ferragamo shoes
0808jianxiang

obat aborsi said...

It's actually a great and helpful piece of information. I am satisfied that you just shared this useful information for us.
Thanks for sharing.

Rina Dwihapsari said...

Nice post and keep always update, i like your blog obat aborsi, cara menggugurkan kandungan

lionel abi said...

I still liked this article, good, good content, and unique design.Thank you for sharing the article.
Cara Menghancurkan Kista Coklat / Endometriosis Sampai Tuntas Tanpa Operasi

Unknown said...

coach factory outlet
louis vuitton outlet
ray ban sunglasses
cheap jordans
nike air max uk
moncler outlet online
true religion outlet
christian louboutin sale
ray ban sunglasses outlet
kobe shoes
chanyuan2017.02.13

John said...

adidas superstar
ugg boots outlet
fake rolex watches
hollister kids
louboutin shoes
nike air force
louis vuitton outlet store
pandora charms
cheap nfl jerseys
timberland boots outlet
20175215yuanyuan

marko said...

With let up front installment and lower credit prerequisites, the FHA Manufactured Loan is the best advance program as well as it might be your exclusive decision to fund your home buy. It is awesome credit program and you ought to contact a FHA bank now to get more data. Payday Loans

raybanoutlet001 said...

ed hardy outlet
ralph lauren pas cher
versace
raiders jerseys
salomon shoes
oakley sunglasses
sac longchamp
birkenstock sandals
valentino shoes
dolce and gabbana shoes

New and Renewable Energy

New and Renewable Energy
Your source for the New and Renewable Energy News and Technologies