Wednesday, February 21, 2007

Municipal Solid Waste Processing Technologies

Rising quality of life and high rates of resource consumption patterns have had a unintended and negative impact on the urban environment - generation of wastes far beyond the handling capacities of urban governments and agencies. Cities are now grappling with the problems of high volumes of waste, the costs involved, the disposal technologies and methodologies, and the impact of wastes on the local and global environment.

But these problems have also provided a window of opportunity for cities to find solutions - involving the community and the private sector; involving innovative technologies and disposal methods; and involving behaviour changes and awareness raising. These issues have been amply demonstrated by good practices from many cities around the world.

There is a clear need for the current approach of waste disposal that is focussed on municipalities and uses high energy/high technology, to move more towards waste processing and waste recycling (that involves public-private partnerships, aiming for eventual waste minimization - driven at the community level, and using low energy/low technology resources. Some of the defining criteria for future waste minimization programmes will include deeper community participation, understanding economic benefits/recovery of waste, focusing on life cycles (rather than end-of-pipe solutions), decentralized administration of waste, minimizing environmental impacts, reconciling investment costs with long-term goals.

Technological Options:

Initially there was a tendency to use well proven technology such as steam turbines, using conventional boilers with MSW as feed. Subsequently, many other technologies were developed and field-tested. Many other technologies are ready for field trial following successful laboratory tests. It is worth noting here that all demonstration and full-scale plants are available in the West (Parker and Roberts 1985) and they are yet to be launched commercially under Indian onditions. Although many different types of R&D projects have been taken up in India and abroad, only commercially successful projects have been described here since description of R&D projects is beyond the scope of this paper. There are mainly the following types of technologies available on commercial scale. The following technological options are available for setting up of waste-to-energy projects:

1. Sanitary Landfill
2. Incineration
3. Gasification

4. Pyrolisis
5. Anaerobic Digestion
6. Plasma Arc Gasification
7. Pellatisation

1. Sanitary Landfill:

‘Sanitary landfill’ is the scientific dumping of MSW using an engineering facility that requires detailed planning and specifications, careful construction, and efficient operation (O’Leary and Walsh 1991a). There are mainly three types of sanitary landfills namely (1) area method, (2) ramp method, and (3) trench method. In all the methods the site is first selected considering the following factors.

1. It should be at least 10 000 ft (3048 metres) away from the airport.
2. It should not be located in wetlands.
3. It should not be in flood- or earthquake-prone areas.
4. It should have a stable soil structure.

During the landfill procedure, at least 40% moisture must be maintained to achieve maximum microbial degradation. Periodically the leach ate collection in the bottom needs to be pumped out to drying beds specially prepared for this purpose. Due to scientific land filling, the maturity is achieved faster and hence gas collection starts even during the landfill procedure. The gas generation and complete extraction are achieved even after closure (say up to 10 years). This is faster than the ordinary landfill where gas extraction continues even up to 50 years. Compost retrieval is an optional choice depending on site condition and commercial feasibility. In addition to the above technologies, there are other emerging technologies such as Plasma Arc Technology is being attempted for energy recovery from waste.

2. Incineration:

The scientific sanitary landfills also have many problems. The main problem is the availability of land located where transportation is economically viable, and with minimum public objection. Accumulation of such a large volume of waste for long time is dangerous for the environment. Hence the best way to solve the problem is to reduce the volume by burning. Even 90% volume reduction can be achieved by burning. But uncontrolled burning causes air pollution and the heat thus generated is wasted and incineration is a practical solution. Incineration technology is the controlled combustion of waste with the recovery of heat to produce steam that in turn produces power through steam turbines (Bhide and Sunderesan 1983). Figure 3 shows that MSW after pretreatment is fed to the boiler of suitable choice wherein high pressure steam is used to produce power through a steam turbine. Proper air pollution control measures are taken and ash from the boiler is dumped in the nearby landfill.


Depending upon the pretreatment methodology, there are mainly two types of MSW combustion technologies available.

1. Unprocessed solid waste combustion technology (also known as mass burning)
2. Processed solid waste combustion technology (also known as RDF burning)

3. Gasification:

The extraction of maximum heat from a given fuel depends upon the efficiency of mixing the fuel with oxygen or air. This is perfectly achieved in the case of gaseous fuels. That is why conversion of solid waste into gaseous fuel is considered one of the best options. As described in Figure 4, MSW after pre-treatment is fed into the main gasification chamber wherein biomass is converted into gas, which, in turn, produces power after cooling and cleaning through gas engine connected to electric generator. A gasifier essentially carry out pyrolysis under limited air in the first stage followed by higher temperature reactions of the pyrolysis products to generate low molecular weight gases such as CO (carbon monoxide), CH4, hydrogen, nitrogen, etc. The gas known as producer gas has the calorific value of 1000–1200 kcal/nm3, which could be used in IC engines for direct power generation or in boilers for steam generation to produce power.

4. Pyrolisis:

Pyrolysis is a thermal decomposition process that occurs at moderate temperatures with a high heat transfer rate to the biomass particles and a short hot vapor residence time in the reaction zone. Several reactor configurations have been shown to assure this condition and to achieve yields of liquid product as high as 75% based on the starting dry biomass weight . They include bubbling fluid beds, circulating and transported beds, cyclonic reactors, and ablative reactors.
Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a liquid product, pyrolysis oil or bio-oil that can be readily stored and transported. Pyrolysis oil is a renewable liquid fuel and can also be used for production of chemicals. Fast pyrolysis has now achieved a commercial success for production of chemicals and is being actively developed for producing liquid fuels. Pyrolysis oil has been successfully tested in engines, turbines and boilers, and been upgraded to high quality hydrocarbon fuels although at a presently unacceptable energetic and financial cost.

In the 1990s several fast pyrolysis technologies reached near-commercial status. Six circulating fluidized bed plants have been constructed by Ensyn Technologies, with the largest having a nominal capacity of 50 t/day operated for Red Arrow Products Co., Inc. in Wisconsin. DynaMotive (Vancouver, Canada) demonstrated the bubbling fluidized bed process at 10 t/day of biomass and is scaling up the plant to 100 t/day. BTG (The Netherlands) operates a rotary cone reactor system at 5 t/day and is proposing to scale the plant up to 50 t/d. Fortum has a 12 t/day pilot plant in Finland. The yields and properties of the generated liquid product, bio-oil, depend on the feedstock, the process type and conditions, and the product collection efficiency.
Biomass Program researchers use both vortex (cyclonic) and fluidized bed reactors for pyrolyzing biomass. The fluidized bed reactor of the Thermochemical Users Facility at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is a 1.8 m high cylindrical vessel of 20 cm diameter in the lower (fluidization) zone, expanded to 36 cm diameter in the freeboard section. It is equipped in a perforated gas distribution plate and an internal cyclone to retain entrained bed media (typically sand). The reactor is heated electrically and can operate at temperatures up to 700°C at a throughput of 15-20 kg/h of biomass.
Recently, a catalytic steam reformer was coupled to the pyrolysis/gasification system. Like the pyrolyzer, the reformer is an externally heated fluidized bed reactor that will be used to produce hydrogen from pyrolysis gas and vapors generated in the first stage of the process and to clean the gas from tars.

5. Anaerobic Digestion:

Municipal solid waste is a heterogeneous waste and contains the following fractions:

a. Putrescible fraction: This is also called digestible fraction and contains biodegradable organic matter such as kitchen waste, vegetable market waste, paper, grass cutting, and yard trimmings. Putrescible fraction represents 40% of MSW in India.

b. Combustible fraction: Also known as refractory organics, these are either slowly digestible or indigestible organic matter such as wood, plastics, rubber, or other synthetics. They represent around 20% of MSW in India.

c. Inert fraction: They are typically non-digestible and non-combustibles such as stones, sand, glass, and metals. They represent 15% of the MSW in India.

d. Remaining 25% is the moisture content

The putrescible fraction is ideally suited to produce biogas and the remaining slurry is a good fertilizer. There are different types of biogas technologies available. The digestible organic fraction thus obtained is kept as pulp in hydrolysis tanks for breaking them into smaller molecules. The hydrolysed pulp is then fed into anaerobic digestion tanks. Here it is digested anaerobically (in absence of air), in the specially designed digesters. Under this active bacterial activity, the digested pulp produces the combustible gas CH4, and inert gas, CO2. The CH4 gas is then used to produce power through a biogas engine connected to electric generator. The remaining digestate (slurry) is a soil conditioner of good quality and free from pathogens. With the help of a solid/liquid separator, organic fertilizer is obtained and the treated water can be safely used for irrigation.


Depending upon the MSW quality and quantity, local environmental and climatic condition, there are various commercially viable technologies available globally. In all the technologies the following steps are involved.

1. Sorting. The putrescible fraction is separated either manually or mechanically.

2. Particle size reduction. To provide maximum surface area to the bacteria, the particle size reduction is carried out by using screw cutting, milling, and drumming, pulping, or shredding machines.

3. Digestion. The material is then fed into anaerobic digesters for gas generation.

4. Post treatment. The slurry or digestate is matured for two to four weeks to make an agriculture or horticulture quality fertilizer or soil conditioner.

The core of the whole technology is the anaerobic digestion. There are many technologies for effective digestion which differ from each other depending upon their digestion parameters.

6. Plasma Arc Gasification:

This system uses a heat source called a plasma arc flame. Two electrodes are precisely shaped and distanced. A highly ionized gas is passed between them and high voltage discharge occurs between the electrodes causing a hot plasma zone to be created. The plasma gas around the electrodes is of extremely high temperature ranging from 5600–30 000 °F (3093–16 649 °C). At such a high temperature the molecules within that zone dissociates into their individual atoms. Thereafter, ‘quenching’ allows for the controlled cooling of the hot plasma gas. The reintegration process produces synthesis gas. Since the process occurs in the vacuum the intermediary products (pollution causing) NOx and SOx (oxides of sulphur) are not formed. It takes care of all organic matters whether biodegradable or not. The cost is expected to be Rs 40–50 million rupees.

7. Pelletization:

Pelletization is a process of producing fuel pellets from solid waste. The complete process involves drying, removal of non-combustibles, grinding, mixing, and production of pellets under high pressure. Usually, the conversion time is 25 minutes. The calorific value of raw garbage is around 1000 kcal/kg while the pellets also known as RDF have the calorific value around 4000 Kcal/kg. About 15–20 tonnes of fuel pellets can be produced after treatment of 100 tonnes of raw garbage. These pellets could be used for heating in the boilers and the steam thus generated, in turn, is used to produce power. A power plant of 5 MW based on RDF will need 12 acres (4.85 hectares) of land and 600 TPD of raw garbage.

The major advantages of setting up of waste-to-energy projects are:

1. The quantity of waste gets reduced by nearly 60% to 90%, depending upon the waste composition and the technology adopted .

2. Demand for land, which is already scarce in cities, for land filling is reduced;

3. The cost of transportation of waste to far-away landfill sites gets reduced; and

There is net reduction in environmental pollution.

Apart from generating power from the waste, the slurry produced from biomethanation technology acts as a good fertilizer.

The growth of this sector has been affected on account of the following limitations/ constraints:

1. Most of the proven and commercial technologies in respect of urban wastes are required to be imported;

2. The costs of the projects especially based on biomethanation technology are high as critical equipment for a project is required to be imported.

3. Lack of financial resources with Municipal Corporations/Urban Local Bodies.

4. Lack of conducive Policy Guidelines from State Govts. in respect of allotment of land, supply of garbage and power purchase / evacuation facilities.


Joel Keller said...

What about pyrolysis?

AJITH GOPI said...

Dear Joel Keller,

Thanks for your comment!
Pyrolysis is one step ahead of Gasification which occurs in absence of oxygen (or very little oxygen) at a temperature of 500-600 deg C. Pyrolysis transforms hazardous organic materials into gaseous components, small quantities of liquid, and a solid residue (coke) containing fixed carbon and ash. Pyrolysis of organic materials produces combustible gases, including carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane, and other hydrocarbons. If the off-gases are cooled, liquids condense producing an oil/tar residue and contaminated water.

I have included "Pyrolisis" also in my article according to your suggestion.



prakash said...

wht abt plasma gasification does it feasible comercially in india

AJITH GOPI said...

Dear Praksh,

In India the Plasma Gasification Technology is yet to be initiated for waste processing; but internationally it is a proven technology.

The Plasma Gasification Process(PGP) is a patented thermal process developed by the Plasco Energy Group. Plasma Gasification Process involves the application of intense heat to waste materials in a completely closed, controlled, and oxygen-starved environment. This process converts waste materials into a clean synthetic gas and heat that can be used to generate electricity.

Plasma Gasification Process has been used to safely dispose of hazardous waste for the last twenty years. Plasco using it's PGP system has itself processed a wide variety or wastes successfully.

A test site for Plasco's plasma-gasification technology is being erected at the Trail Road landfill site in the suburbs of west Ottawa. The test facility will process 85 tonnes per day of the city's waste.
That waste is broken down by a plasma torch to the synthetic level. The flame produced is 8,000°C and is hotter than the sun's surface.
The created has the energy to run a turbine that generates electricity. The electricity created will partially be used to run the facility, and the rest will be sold to the City of Ottawa.
From the 85 tonnes of waste processed, approximately 4.1 megawatts of electricity will be generated each day. Only 0.9 megawatts of that will be used to power the facility, leaving enough electricity to power approximately 3,000 homes.

Cost projected for the proposed Plasma Gasification Plant at Ottawa, Canada is U.S $ 27 million.

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